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CARNOSINE
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CARNOSINE

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Effects of Carnosine and Anserine Supplementation on Relatively High Intensity Endurance Performance

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term chicken breast extract (CBEX) supplementation, a rich source of carnosine and anserine, on relatively high intensity endurance performance. Sixteen healthy male subjects were divided into CBEX group (n=8) and placebo group (n=8). The CBEX group was orally administered 200 ml CBEX drink which contained 4g of carnosine and anserine per day for 30 days.

The exercise duration time at 100%VO2max was significantly increased after supplementation in the CBEX group. Blood lactate concentration and RPE at 75%VO2max was significantly decreased after supplementation in the CBEX group.

These results suggest that the long-term ingestion of carnosine and anserine could enhance muscle buffering capacity, and in turn improve relatively high intensity endurance performance such as the so-called “last spurt” resulting from attenuation of the muscle fatigue at submaximal exercise. [Source]

Effect of beta-alanine supplementation on muscle carnosine concentrations and exercise performance

High-intensity exercise results in reduced substrate levels and accumulation of metabolites in the skeletal muscle. The accumulation of these metabolites (e.g. ADP, Pi and H+) can have deleterious effects on skeletal muscle function and force generation, thus contributing to fatigue.

Clearly this is a challenge to sport and exercise performance and, as such, any intervention capable of reducing the negative impact of these metabolites would be of use. Carnosine (β-alanyl-l-histidine) is a cytoplasmic dipeptide found in high concentrations in the skeletal muscle of both vertebrates and non-vertebrates and is formed by bonding histidine and β-alanine in a reaction catalysed by carnosine synthase.

Thus, the elevation of muscle carnosine concentrations through the dietary intake of carnosine, or chemically related dipeptides that release β-alanine on absorption, or supplementation with β-alanine directly could provide a method of increasing intracellular buffering capacity during exercise, which could provide a means of increasing high-intensity exercise capacity and performance.

This paper reviews the available evidence relating to the effects of β-alanine supplementation on muscle carnosine synthesis and the subsequent effects on exercise performance. In addition, the effects of training, with or without β-alanine supplementation, on muscle carnosine concentrations are also reviewed. [Source]

Effect of Beta-Alanine and Carnosine Supplementation on Muscle Contractility in Mice

Enhanced carnosine levels have been shown to be ergogenic for high-intensity exercise performances, although the role of carnosine in the control of muscle function is poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term supplementation with increasing doses of carnosine and beta-alanine on muscle carnosine, anserine, and taurine levels and on in vitro contractility and fatigue in mice.

Results: Only supplementation with 1.8% carnosine and 1.2% beta-alanine resulted in markedly higher carnosine (up to +160%) and anserine levels (up to +46%) compared with control mice.

Conclusion: Comparable with humans, beta-alanine availability seems to be the rate-limiting step for synthesis of muscle histidine-containing dipeptides in mice. Moreover, muscle histidine-containing dipeptides loading in mice moderately and muscle dependently affects excitation–contraction coupling and fatigue. [Source]

Would Carnosine or a Carnivorous Diet Help Suppress Aging and Associated Pathologies?

Carnosine (β-alanyl-l-histidine) is found exclusively in animal tissues. Carnosine has the potential to suppress many of the biochemical changes (e.g., protein oxidation, glycation, AGE formation, and cross-linking) that accompany aging and associated pathologies.

It is suggested that carnivorous diets could be beneficial because of their carnosine content, as the dipeptide has been shown to suppress some diabetic complications in mice. It is also suggested that carnosine’s therapeutic potential should be explored with respect to neurodegeneration. [Source]

Supplementation with carnosine decreases plasma triglycerides and modulates atherosclerotic plaque composition in diabetic apo E−/− mice

Carnosine has been shown to modulate triglyceride and glycation levels in cell and animal systems. In this study we investigated whether prolonged supplementation with carnosine inhibits atherosclerosis and markers of lesion stability in hyperglycaemic and hyperlipidaemic mice.

Prolonged carnosine supplementation resulted in a significant (∼20-fold) increase in plasma carnosine levels, and a significant (∼23%) lowering of triglyceride levels in the carnosine-supplemented groups regardless of glycaemic status. Supplementation did not affect glycaemic status, blood cholesterol levels or loss of body mass.

These data indicate that in a well-established model of diabetes-associated atherosclerosis, prolonged carnosine supplementation enhances plasma levels, and has novel and significant effects on atherosclerotic lesion lipid, collagen and macrophage levels. These data are consistent with greater lesion stability, a key goal in treatment of existing cardiovascular disease. Carnosine supplementation may therefore be of benefit in lowering triglyceride levels and suppressing plaque instability in diabetes-associated atherosclerosis. [Source]

β-Alanine supplementation augments muscle carnosine content and attenuates fatigue during repeated isokinetic contraction bouts in trained sprinters

Carnosine (β-alanyl-l-histidine) is present in high concentrations in human skeletal muscle. The ingestion of β-alanine, the rate-limiting precursor of carnosine, has been shown to elevate the muscle carnosine content. We aimed to investigate, using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (proton MRS), whether oral supplementation with β-alanine during 4 wk would elevate the calf muscle carnosine content and affect exercise performance in 400-m sprint-trained competitive athletes.

In conclusion, 1) proton MRS can be used to noninvasively quantify human muscle carnosine content; 2) muscle carnosine is increased by oral β-alanine supplementation in sprint-trained athletes; 3) carnosine loading slightly but significantly attenuated fatigue in repeated bouts of exhaustive dynamic contractions [Source]

Effects of α-lipoic acid and L-carnosine supplementation on antioxidant activities and lipid profiles in rats

α-Lipoic acid and L-carnosine are powerful antioxidants and are often used as a health supplement and as an ergogenic aid. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of α-lipoic acid and/or L-carnosine supplementation on antioxidant activity in serum, skin, and liver of rats and blood lipid profiles for 6 weeks.

α-lipoic acid and L-carnosine supplementation increased antioxidant activity, decreased lipid peroxidation in the serum, liver, and skin of rats and positively modified blood lipid profiles. [Source]

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